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Long-distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution over 100-km fiber with local local oscillator

Quantum key distribution (QKD) enables two remote parties to share encryption keys with security based on the laws of physics. Continuous-variable (CV) QKD with coherent states and coherent detection integrates well with existing telecommunication networks. Thus far, long-distance CV-QKD has only been demonstrated using a highly complex scheme where the local oscillator is transmitted, opening security loopholes for eavesdroppers and limiting potential applications. Here, we report a long-distance CV-QKD experiment with a locally generated local oscillator over a 100-kilometer fiber channel with a total loss of 15.4 decibels. This record-breaking distance is achieved by controlling the phase noise–induced excess noise through a machine learning framework for carrier recovery and optimizing the modulation variance. We implement the full CV-QKD protocol and demonstrate the generation of keys secure against collective attacks in the finite-size regime. Our results mark a substantial milestone for realizing CV quantum access networks with a high loss budget and pave the way for large-scale deployment of secure QKD.